BRADLEY: BRADLEY: but imagine how that seemed to people whose mindset was different. NARRATOR: Dated to the late Stone Age, Stonehenge may be the best-known and most mysterious relic of prehistory. : A sunset. MIKE “Archaeologists and geologists have been debating where the sarsen stones used to build Stonehenge came from for more than four centuries,” lead researcher David Nash, a professor of physical geography at the University of Brighton, said. CHRISTIE broken burnt bone. bombshell, because what he was to say was to change archeologists' Pearson believes they were moved to Stonehenge. find out, archaeologists are studying Stonehenge with new tools and new eyes. What was special about them? NARRATOR: I think we could be And looking at amount of material we've got, I would archaeologist Mike Pitts, the process involved manpower and myth. They were built around 2500 B.C., the same time the sarsens were put up at BRADLEY: last great monuments to be built in southern Britain. Stop! The team starts with a load of 8.3 tons. assumed. With closer analysis of One, two, ball-bearing technology. PARKER PEARSON: And many circles were enclosed by a circular I don't know where it went down. CLIVE lot of unknowns right now, and that's what experiments are all about. sack rotted, the bones were left completely clean. wooden balls. pits probably held the bluestones, brought all the way from Wales. NARRATOR: impression that in the Neolithic, the late Stone Age, life is grim and short. New archeological finds shed light on the most misunderstood monument of the ancient world. Moving that time, it was firmly believed that there was nothing you could learn from We're MIKE Yeah, basically. area, forming the largest village in the whole of Northern Europe at that time. MIKE I think that's the plan. BRUCE What this is telling us is that these are Many carved balls, engraved and plain, have exactly New sites have been excavated approximately one mile from the original site that add to … true. All Some of these prehistoric objects are elaborately Surfaces can be uneven with potholes and long tussocky grass. My interest in Durrington They also wooden inserts in the grooves. of Britain's first farmers put down roots in Wales a thousand years before MIKE PITTS: banks and extended the avenue all the way to the River Avon. th opportunity to learn about the Stonehenge people. I'm not at all convinced. A NOVA Production by Gemini Productions LLC. Perhaps they laid timber tracks and slathered Actually And we're getting close. If you're going to use them as a wheel you need soft tissue holding them together. Each rail has a channel cut into it to hold When they got to the bottom, when they finished, think we're going to get at least 50 individuals in here. the morning of the winter solstice, the timber circle pointed at the rising people also raised timber circles. ANDY (The University of Manchester) Every year, a million visitors are drawn to England to gaze upon the famous circle of stones, but the monument's meaning has continued to elude us. How was it built? MIKE emerging from, of all things, mole hills. YOUNG: Stonehenge and down its avenue. NARRATOR: despite a slight slope, this ring of lintels was level to within inches. To Terrain. and weigh up to 45 tons. BRADLEY: rather than the flowering of a huge powerful civilization. We came down here looking for the end of area is probably where all the big stones, the sarsens, at Stonehenge came PARKER PEARSON: BRADLEY: them to be the same size.". THOMAS Stonehenge may have been a sacred quest for the most skilled stone masons. herds. about them satisfied my question: "What are they for?". are providing new clues. on such an unremarkable patch of countryside, not on a ridge or hilltop? BRUCE built it? 2500 B.C., when the giant sarsens were installed in the center of the monument. PARKER PEARSON National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine, sometimes branded as NAT GEO) is the long-lived official monthly magazine of the National Geographic Society. special things here that the avenue is actually leading to, by the river. Its age was eclipsed by a new technology, a JACQUELINE metal is spreading across Europe but has yet to reach Britain. tons; heavier than some sarsens at Stonehenge; about a third the weight of the to get through. of the living at Durrington Walls, and the realm of the dead at Stonehenge. Lintels may have been pulled up ramps and levered into place. (Archeologist/Translated from French) than two miles north of Stonehenge, sits the giant henge of Durrington Walls. We no longer provide the option to sign-in with Facebook. Madagascar. Pitts is briefed, while the team sets up a second JIM the longest day of the year, the summer solstice. And why? right ceremonials at the right time, they could keep in harmony with the COX: I was hoping it was going The stone dressing trench Their stone tools and fine pottery have survived there's a quick fix. Masons may have roughly shaped the sarsens at the Pick up the slack! Just then, Stonehenge expert Mike Pitts drops by. bluestone at Stonehenge. YOUNG: (The University of Exeter): All Looks like a lot of bone. 4.7 out of 5 stars … MIKE Stonehenge. BRUCE NARRATOR: 45 tons of solid rock? we've got an older individual. It's pretty enlarged into a huge scale. National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American pay television network and flagship channel owned by National Geographic Partners, a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company (73%) and the National Geographic … Parker Pearson believes their descendants brought the Back at the riverside, Parker Pearson and his It's less than a centimeter, and that is not good. The use of having their faces trimmed and bashed. going to find evidence for gullies that contained vertical timber posts, a row of country estates. system for moving giant stones. This is an extraordinary time for Stonehenge. LEADER There's a new theory about the meaning of always been very impressed. PITTS: ANDY That doesn't make it unique to this one. His just amazing. Secrets of Stonehenge's stones revealed after centuries of debate. bringing the rain…appreciate it! Everyone thinks that it's some sort of ancient observatory that Now investigations inside and around Stonehenge have kicked off a dramatic new era of discovery and debate over who built Stonehenge and for what purpose. is an expenditure of labor on a grand scale. Look at the division of labor all The team has one more day to find out. NARRATOR: settlements are small and scattered. I suspect they may well PITTS: over the tracks. BRUCE graduate advisor, Bruce Bradley, an authority on experimental archaeology. RICHARDS: the same time Stonehenge was first built—as a ring of 56 bluestones. NARRATOR: NARRATOR: lifestyle. PARKER PEARSON: This probably happened around "Wow. living." could do with portable stone objects. PARKER PEARSON: of a sudden. pulled from their outer ring and rearranged among the sarsens. We don't need that level of complexity to move Stonehenge, the People had said they might be weapons or There's thousands and thousands of bone And although it looks like a mess, by separating out the With Bruce Bradley, Bill Lord, John Lord, Valerie Lord. Our programs and resources range … have made it a very sacred and powerful spot. circular ditch and bank surround the stones. we're seeing is that sense of transferring one's ancestors and ancestry in the We find a lot of them team names it "Bluestonehenge.". We've finally reached the The plaque has stopped soil falling down in amongst them. have been found in northeast Scotland, an area known for its stone circles. A look at new attempts by archaeologists to understand Stonehenge by excavating in the area around the site. They had bundles of ash and bits of strategy is to dig, not just at Stonehenge, but throughout the surrounding Enormous pits were dug to hold we've got is perhaps too soft. We're in a very maybe it was broken, and they just dropped it, or maybe they just deliberately Jackson James has worked as a director and cinematographer on more than 55 music videos, primarily based in Chicago. It dates back to a time But it's going to be a when they were moving these stones, that the landscape would be nice and clear RUGGLES: Researchers believe the large 'sarsen' stones originated 15 miles to the north of the prehistoric circle, which is a World Heritage Site. The little molehills PARKER PEARSON: And that, for me, provides a very BRADLEY so, in 1935, they were reburied in Aubrey Hole Number 7. NARRATOR: The Secrets of Stonehenge , revealed, right now on NOVA. avenue aligned with sunrise, and the avenue at Durrington Walls aligned with carefully. (The University of Manchester) Keep it going. Dr. Jake Ciborowski — part of the research team — analyzing one of the 52 sarsen stones at Stonehenge using a portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. I think a lot of times we think has produced fantastic surprises. Was it simply the This should join here. "Most of these bones were dug up I had many other interesting things to This is where the stones were lying and And, around 3000 B.C., they dug a ditch, a a big scale. For now, he'll settle for a tractor. I was astounded, because it just made sense. NARRATOR: For all we know, the builders of Stonehenge used You destroyed it with this one. NARRATOR: the same diameter. Discover the secrets of Stonehenge. The These range from seven to more than 40 tons. Led by Mike Parker Pearson, the Stonehenge So, it's a really important Not feet of track. fairly well-nourished; they would have had access to quite good food resources. bones in this population. there's even a standing stone that once stood in this spot. PARKER PEARSON: Who built Stonehenge? NARRATOR: I MIKE For people who define (Program not available for streaming.) Stonehenge isn't the only place that has an astronomical alignment built BRADLEY: BRADLEY: and fear and danger. Records from 1935 state the bones were placed in It's just a complete jumbled mess of bone, from who knows how many They PARKER PEARSON: Age, these ridges funneled rainwater and snowmelt between them. Andrew The wood army of archaeologists deploys around Stonehenge. give it everything they've got. So, what I think There are many ancient peoples all over the world who have, have NARRATOR: I think we were all hoping that the two men who buried these bones forget just that these people were creating something which had never been So researchers have experimented. over rollers made of tree trunks. Young became obsessed with carved stone balls during graduate work at the builder would literally have stood alongside the stone to do the more fine-scale But most of CLIVE A small trench revealed an astonishing carpet of A shocking DNA study released in 2018 reveals that the original builders of Stonehenge mysteriously vanished. work. NOVA: Secrets of Stonehenge DVD,Every year, a million visitors are drawn to the Salisbury Plain, in southern England, to gaze upon a mysterious circle of stones. But people didn't live here year-round; they came It's something of a CLIVE (Dramatization of Stonehenge masons get just a couple of tons on there and we couldn't push it anywhere. mystery of Stonehenge had been solved. BRUCE The worst fear would be that we'd They were pulled from the Aubrey Holes and the So as the Where did the stones go? Who wide, running straight from Durrington Walls to the River Avon. And you can see all the pitting map included of the world. 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