... slightly larger than the magnitude 9.0 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake that devastated northern Sumatra in December 2004 and generated a tsunami that killed more than 280,000 people. The Kantishna cluster is a group of small, shallow earthquakes—not far from Wonder Lake—at the southwestern end of a shear zone. Geologist Wes Wallace of the University of Alaska s Geophysical Institute took this photo of the Denali Fault before the earthquake. The largest surface offsets of 8.8 meters (29 feet) were observed farther to the east. For example, there were clusters of earthquakes around a zone that included a major earthquake on Jan 30, 1973, another cluster around an earthquake of March 14, 1979, and two more cluster around earthquakes of July 1957 and January, 1962. Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint. and minor earthquakes on the subduction zone in a cluster pattern. The earthquake caused an offset of nearly 6 meters (20 feet) where it crossed … The 2002 Denali EQ, the Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline and EQ Hazard Mitigation On Nov 3, 2002 a large magnitude 7.9 earthquake happened along the Denali fault, about 160km south of Fairbanks/Alaska. Studies of the fault at various locations have yielded a wide range of slip rates, but the best estimates generally converge on a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr. The M W (moment magnitude) 7.9 Denali fault earthquake on 3 November 2002 was associated with 340 kilometers of surface rupture and was the largest strike-slip earthquake in North America in almost 150 years. AEIC has four seismic stations in Denali: (from west to east, see map) Castle Rocks (CAST), Kantishna Hills (KTH) on Wickersham Dome, Thoroughfare Mountain (TRF), and McKinley (MCK) near the park entrance. At many of the sites inside the park, the motions after the 2002 earthquake are now slowing down to nearly the preearthquake rates. Alaska is the most geologically active part of the United States. As crustal blocks slide horizontally past one another, strike slip faults occur; when blocks are pushed together, one block is thrust up or down along the fault line. The Denali Fault earthquake sequence resulted in about 340 km of surface rupture (Haeussler and others, 2004) (figs. Edwards, M. Rahman, H. Ryu, ... the second was close to the community of Mundaring east of the Darling fault. The red line represents the fault, which runs east toward Mt. Most people in Interior Alaska were reminded of the fault’s earthquake potential when it ruptured on November 3, 2002. Therefore, in the pre-earthquake phase, preparedness, mitigation and prevention AEIC analysts locate between 20,000 and 30,000 earthquakes in Alaska each year. Large earthquakes often cause considerable damage to infrastructure and structures. With more than 20,000 earthquakes reported annually, Alaska is by far the most seismically active state. The Denali Fault has a lower seismic risk, with a maximum The Denali fault earthquake (Mw = 7.9) of November 3, 2002 was the largest strike–slip earthquake (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2003) that occurred in North America in almost 150 years. Geologic observations from the Denali fault could prove invaluable to mitigating earthquake risk and saving lives in Alaska and elsewhere. In the Aleutian Islands, where the subduction angle is much steeper, the shallow-todeep earthquake pattern is more compact. The Denali Fault has a lower seismic risk, with a maximum On October 23, people of Interior Alaska were awakened to strong shaking caused by a magnitude 6.7 earthquake. COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST LARGE-SCALE EARTHQUAKES The main cause of many casualties in the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995 was In 2002, the M 7.9 earthquake ruptured a portion of the Denali fault east of the park to produce a horizontal offset of up to 8.8 m (29 feet). Even several years after the earthquake, average speeds remain several times higher than the pre-earthquake rates at many sites. In 2002, the M 7.9 earthquake ruptured a portion of the Denali fault east of the park to produce a horizontal offset of up to 8.8 m (29 feet). Although people tend to view the Earth as static and stable between earthquakes, every point is actually moving slowly as Earth’s tectonic plates move around. A network of 26 1-Hz GPS stations that observed sur-face wave displacements due to the Denali Fault event Every event is briefly reviewed by the on-duty seismologist, and carefully relocated by an analyst. Denali fault earthquake to evaluate structural damage in that event. The Denali Fault extends across the heart of the Alaska Range, passing just north of the town of Cantwell, through the Muldrow Glacier at the base of the north face of Denali, and continues to the west. A major earthquake along the fault could cause the pipeline to rupture, spilling crude oil into the surrounding environment. On average, Alaska has had one M 8+ earthquake every 13 years, one M 7-8 earthquake every two years, and six M 6-7 earthquakes per year (Alaska Seismic Hazards Safety Commission, 2012). The Pacific plate is moving northwest relative to Alaska, causing many earthquakes along the interface. The basic structure of methods for estimating hazard was developed by engineers needing quantitative answers despite the wide range of uncertainties ( 1 ). Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint. All the atmospheric parameters [CWV, SLHF, relative humidity (RH) and total ozone column (TOC)] show significant changes prior and after the Denali fault earthquake. One of them was the Denali 7.9 earthquake, the largest earth- [2004] determined focal mechanisms for earthquakes before and after the Denali fault earthquake, then estimated Investigating the seismic response of regular and irregular urban structures can provide useful information for input to any preparedness plan. The main shock occurred about 80 km (50 miles) east of the Denali Visitor Center. 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