Discussion Chapter: Main Goals and Writing Approaches You should always keep in […] Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. This is where you infuse your results with meaning. Education: Organizing the Learning Process . The Writing Center. For more tips on planning panel discussions… Event Manager Blog has a comprehensive list of things to consider when you plan a panel discussion. Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. Interview-based research is organized by topics, whereas screen-based research is … MacCoun, Robert J. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction; the discussion should always explain how your study has moved the reader's understanding of the research problem forward from where you left them at the end of the introduction. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. How to Write an Effective Discussion. Follow this step-by-step guide. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. AN ORGANIZING CONVERSATION Here are some guidelines for a fruitful conversation (or a series of conversations) with a co- worker. In organizing your discussion, start from the specific to general • Emphasis the new or important findings from your results, then explain the reason behind these findings. Organizing involves assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, delegating authority, and allocating resources across the organization. Department of English Writing Guide. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research. Annesley, Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. The main trick to imposing organization is to know some options and to choose one. It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove. There are lots of options you have when you are viewing a specific discussion topic. A few historical references may be helpful for perspective but most of the references should be relatively recent and included to aid in the interpretation of your results and/or linked to similar studies. The ultimate comfort, and one that breaks down barriers among people, is that of eating and drinking. Present the underlying meaning of your research, note possible implications in other areas of study, and explore possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research; Highlight the importance of your study and how it can contribute to understanding the research problem within the field of study. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to discover and not to prove. No one has thought as long and hard about your study as you have. The Writing Center. If a limitation is applicable to the method chosen to gather information, then describe in detail the problems you encountered and why. Talk with people like human beings! Leaving the place a mess suits me fine. During the organizing process, managers coordinate employees, resources, policies, and procedures to facilitate the goals identified in the plan. VI. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. Nobody should follow a script mechanically, of course. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. As noted, the exception to discussing findings in the same order you described them in the results section would be to begin by highlighting the implications of a particularly unexpected or significant finding that emerged from the study, followed by a discussion of the remaining findings. Panel moderating is a skill that requires the ability to understand the gist of what a panelist is saying and use it to jump quickly to a related point. With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. University College Writing Centre. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of statistical significance. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results." American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). Set a schedule such as checking for new discussion postings only once a day. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, other questions related to the problem likely remain unanswered. It is important to remember that the purpose of research is to. The sequence of this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. Wondering how to organise a conference in 2019? It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! I. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. A good moderator actively directs the discussion and doesn’t just sit back and let panelists drone … When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations for the study results, rather than just those that fit your prior assumptions or biases. Think of your discussion as an inverted pyramid. These points are filled out in more detail in the “Guidelines for Reflection and Discussion” section. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps to support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your study differs from other research about the topic. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. to formulate a deeper, more profound understanding of the research problem you are studying. For a good structure and organization of your research’s discussion and conclusion, keep in mind these aspects: 1. Department of English Writing Guide. These are the general rules you should adopt when composing your discussion of the results: The content of the discussion section of your paper most often includes: Keep the following sequential points in mind as you organize and write the discussion section of your paper: The objectives of your discussion section should include the following: Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand your discussion of the results in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your effort to interpret the data in relation to the research problem. MacCoun, Robert J. Although your study may offer important insights about the research problem, this is where you can address other questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or highlight previously hidden questions that were revealed as a result of conducting your research. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. Azar, Beth. NOTE: Besides the literature review section, the preponderance of references to sources is usually found in the discussion section. After reading the discussion section, you want the reader to think critically about the results [“why didn't I think of that?”]. The bin serves two valuable purposes: 1) it stores valuable ideas for consideration at an appropriate and convenient time, and 2) it allows discussion to stay focused on the agenda topic. “Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (January 2006): 4-18; Kretchmer, Paul. II. In every meeting, someone derails the discussion with a host of interesting tangents. All the three resources are important to get results. Some people call panel discussions symposia, but the different uses of this word can cause confusion. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2009. ", One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. Check out this article to learn a bit more about what a symposium is. Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address, and.... Organize the discussion forums. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. 2. For corporate and organizational discussion groups, the list of participants … You may have to lead a discussion as part of a school assignment or you may be responsible for leading a discussion in a work setting. In other words, you make your main argument. University of North Carolina; Schafer, Mickey S. Writing the Discussion. You should make suggestions for further research in the discussion section. Fourteen Steps to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. A good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. The discussion section should end with a concise summary of the principal implications of the findings regardless of their significance. Fourteen Steps to Writing to Writing an Effective Discussion Section. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Annual Review of Psychology 49 (February 1998): 259-287. No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. Note that any significant or unanticipated finding is often because there was no prior research to indicate the finding could occur. Remember that the data are the data: nothing more, nothing less. "Biases in the Interpretation and Use of Research Results. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. Plus, some handy templates. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. The basic format for the Toulmin Method is as follows: Claim:In this section, you explain your overall thesis on the subject. Use the same key terms, narrative style, and verb tense [present] that you used when describing the research problem in your introduction. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If appropriate, refer the reader to a figure or table to help enhance the interpretation of the data [either within the text or as an appendix]. The sound of water from the mill stream rushing by put everyone at ease, and encouraged creative thought. Subscriptions You can subscribe to a specific discussion topic by clicking on the subscribe link below the original post. University College Writing Centre. Organize the discussion from the general to the specific, linking your findings to the literature, then to theory, then to practice [if appropriate]. Use the same key terms, mode of narration, and verb tense [present] that you used when when describing the research problem in … Note any unanswered questions or issues your study did not address and describe the generalizability of your results to other situations. You should write a direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Organising a conference is a marathon, not a sprint.So, before we jump into the nitty-gritty of how to organise a conference, pour yourself a cup of tea. American Psychological Association gradPSYCH Magazine (January 2006). Department of Biology. ... discussion discussion section active learning writing collaborative learning motivation conceptual knowledge analysis problem solving reading & composition courses participation group work reading strategies visual learning critical thinking role play and simulation Full tag list. VI. The discussion section is often considered the most important part of your research paper because this is where you: Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.” Clinical Chemistry 56 (November 2010): 1671-1674; Bitchener, John and Helen Basturkmen. You don’t want to force the reader to go through the paper multiple times to figure out what it all means. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. Invite the right people. Minimize the number of teams that require a person's participation. Bates College; Hess, Dean R. "How to Write an Effective Discussion." If needed, use subheadings to help organize your presentation or to group your interpretations into themes. The Organization. Our intention here is not to recommend a “best way” of organizing the discussion space, but to raise some questions to consider when determining how to arrange your classroom. Department of English Writing Guide. Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works and references in the past tense. This article gives doctoral dissertation students valuable guidance on how to go about writing their Discussion chapter. Is it clear who is responsible … Systematically explain the meaning of the findings and why you believe they are important. Describe the generalizability of your results to other situations, if applicable to the method chosen, then describe in detail problems you encountered in the method(s) you used to gather information. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the, Azar, Beth. San Francisco Edit, 2003-2008; The Lab Report. III. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings. Best practice: Create teams with a larger set of members and more channels. As such, you should always approach the selection and interpretation of your findings introspectively and to think critically about the possibility of judgmental biases unintentionally entering into discussions about the significance of your work. Before concluding the discussion, identify potential limitations and weaknesses. "Discussing Your Findings." This can be followed by any recommendations for further research. The discussion guide will reflect this in the questions you include. If there is prior research to indicate this, you need to explain why it was significant or unanticipated. Panel discussions are an inseparable part of many events. Azar, Beth. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. University of Florida; Yellin, Linda L. A Sociology Writer's Guide. The discussion section should relate your study findings to those of other studies, particularly if questions raised by previous studies served as the motivation for your study, the findings of other studies support your findings [which strengthens the importance of your study results], and/or they point out how your study differs from other similar studies. Lund Research Ltd., 2012; Summary: Using it Wisely. George Mason University; One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Importance of Organizing Function Specialization - Organizational structure is a network of relationships in which the work is divided into units and departments. Organizing is highly complex and often involves a systematic review of human resources, finances, and priorities. This would demonstrate to the reader that you have inadequately examined and interpreted the data. The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. The discussion section is where you explore the underlying meaning of your research, its possible implications in other areas of study, and the possible improvements that can be made in order to further develop the concerns of your research. The article starts by outlining the main goals and writing approaches. Data (Grounds): You should use evidence t… Channels within a team should be thought of as topics or workstreams to aid the team in organizing their work to deliver on their joint objectives. You should frame your suggestions by linking the need for further research to the limitations of your study [e.g., in future studies, the survey instrument should include more questions that ask..."] or linking to critical issues revealed from the data that were not considered initially in your research. Higher Achievement is a four-year high school preparatory after-school program for disadvantaged urban children of various academic levels during middle school, 5th-8th grade. In an ideal world, you could simply reject your null or alternative hypotheses according to the significance levels found by the statistics.That is the main point of your discussion section, but the process is usually a lot more complex than that. III. "Discussing Your Findings." The discussion assignment provides a forum for debating topics that may not have one clear answer. The discussion section should relate your results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for your research. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important. A group that never loses is probably just too naive or nearsighted to understand what's happening. I don't want to organize my garage, because I don't want to do any work around the house to begin with. By bringing together several speakers, event organisers are able to offer the audience a thought-provoking discussion that analyses a topic from different angles. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Systematically explain the underlying meaning of your findings and state why you believe they are significant. Avoid using an apologetic tone; however, be honest and self-critical. Discussing Your Findings. Sometimes your professor will encourage you to expand the discussion in this way, while others don’t care what your opinion is beyond your efforts to interpret the data. Avoid checking for postings to the discussions or submissions to the Dropbox several times a day. It is far better for you to identify and acknowledge your study’s limitations than to have them pointed out by your professor! Annesley Thomas M. “The Discussion Section: Your Closing Argument.”, Avoid the use of jargon or undefined technical language, Follow a logical stream of thought; in general, interpret and discuss the significance of your findings in the same sequence you described them in your results section [a notable exception is to begin by highlighting an unexpected result or finding in order to grab the reader's attention], Use the present verb tense, especially for established facts; however, refer to specific works or prior studies in the past tense, If needed, use subheadings to help organize your discussion or to categorize your interpretations into themes. Once a plan has been created, a manager can begin to organize. Sometimes these tangents relate to the topic at hand. Respiratory Care 49 (October 2004); Kretchmer, Paul. More often, though, they affect it only indirectly. Describe the patterns, principles, and relationships shown by each major findings and place them in proper perspective. Obviously, you must refer to your results when discussing them, but focus on the interpretation of those results and their significance in relation to the research problem, not the data itself. Begin by briefly re-stating the research problem you were investigating and answer all of the research questions underpinning the problem that you posed in the introduction. The sequencing of providing this information is important; first state the answer, then the relevant results, then cite the work of others. One organization often held discussions on the terrace of an old mill that had been turned into a bookstore and café. Think of your discussion and conclusion section as an inverted pyramid: start from the general aspects of your research and then focus on the specifics. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe the significance of your findings in light of what was already known about the research problem being investigated and to explain any new understanding or insights that emerged as a result of your study of the problem. Writing in Psychology course syllabus. II. Remember in our initial discussion of the process of organizing we talked about the FWFWFLFH method. Give a brief explanation about why you believe the findings and conclusions of your study are important and how they support broader knowledge or understanding of the research problem. One of the most common mistakes that you can make when discussing the results of your study is to present a superficial interpretation of the findings that more or less re-states the results section of your paper. Three resources are important had been turned into a bookstore and café that never loses is probably just too or. 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